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Researched and edited by:

Anja Rahlenbeck

Alonso Rocha Tapia

Maggie McGarrity

Dorian Miller

How did the religion develop? Did someone found the religion?

Judaism was founded during the Bronze Age in the Middle East by Abraham, the chosen leader by God. In fact, the very first person to preach that there was one god was Abraham. Many people call him the first Patriarch for the Jews. People became interested in what he was preaching because they had never heard of a monotheistic religion. Since Abraham was successful, he was rewarded with several children who willingly preached Judaism as well. This was over 3,000 years ago, before the messiah came. Three kings who were named Saul, David, and Solomon built the first Jewish temple. These men were the first kings of Israel, the Jewish land.
Judaism was found around 4000 years ago by Abraham, known to be the founder of Judaism. It is believed that Abraham was the first Jew ever. It’s believed that Abraham and God covenanted with each other.
Judaism was founded in the Middle East during the Bronze Age by a man named Abraham. Abraham was the first person to teach about there being only one god, because before this most people believed in multiple gods. This was about 3500 years ago.
Judaism was founded by Abraham the father of hebrews and jews. Judaism was founded in the bronze age somewhere in the middle east.
The “classical” Judaism did not develop until around the 1st century AD, but Judaism actually was founded around 2000 BC in a place which is known as Canaan. Canaan is the given biblical name to the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean. This is where Israel and the Palestinian territories are. An important figure for the Jews is Abraham. He was the first to teach that there was only one God.

Are there any important days? Which ones? What happens on those days?

There are many important periods of time in Judaism such as Passover and Hanukkah. There is one holy day per week called “The Sabbath’ - this is on Saturday and is supposed to be a day of rest and no work. It was first spoken of in the first chapter of the Bible about creation. In this chapter, it was written that on the 7th day, God rested and admired his beautiful work done in 6 previous days. The Sabbath commences when the women of the household light two or more candles and have a traditional meal. The Jewish people also have different months than other religions as shown below:
  1. Nissan (March-April)
  2. Iyar (April-May)
  3. Sivan (May-June)
  4. Tammuz (June-July)
  5. Av (July-August)
  6. Elul (August-September)
  7. Tishri (September-October)
  8. Cheshvan (October-November)
  9. Kislev (November-December)
  10. Tevet (December-January)
  11. Shevat (January-February)
  12. Adar I, leap years only (February-March)
  13. Adar, called Adar Beit in leap years (February-March)

Rosh Hashanah is a holy day which happens on the 1st and 2nd of “Tishri” which is often called the “Jewish New Year”. There are 10 days leading up to Rosh Hashanah which are called “The Days of Awe”. This is the period of time when all Jewish people are supposed to go to everyone that they had hurt in the previous year and apologize for what they have done.

This leads up to Yom Kipper, “The Day of Atonement”, when the Jewish people go to the Synagogue. Yom Kipper is one of the most important days in the Jewish year. It is celebrated on the 10th day of the seventh month (Tishri). This is also the day when God is considered to have decided if you will live, die, or be given another kind of consuquence and Jews are required to fast on this special day.

Passover is an 8 day celebration that occurs from the 15th - 22nd of Nissan. This holiday recognizes the time when the Israelites were enslaved by the Egyptians. God noticed their enslavement so he spoke to Moses who he wanted to go to the Pharoah and say:
“Send forth My people, so that they may serve Me.”. The pharoah did not agree with him so God put 10 plagues throughout Egypt killing their new crops and animals. When God reached the last plague, he bean killing all of the first borns in that household. HOwever, he "passed over" the households in Israel. There is a certain diet that is used during passover as well as different rules and candles.




Probably the most famous holy period of time is Hannukah. If you are Christian then it can be described as the Jewish version of Christmas. The Jews believe there was a group of people called the Maccabees who went to the sacred temple after seizing their righful land form the Syrian Greeks. However, after the battle, they only had enough oil to light one Menorah for a single day. The Jews believe that even though the amount of matches and oil they had should have lasted them a single day, it lasted for 8 days instead. This is why Hannakah lasts for eight days. This celebration occurs from 25 Kislev - 2 or 3 Tevet.

The Jews have a lot of Celebrations. The Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah, which is a celebrations which happens in September from the 16th-18th. Rosh Hashanah means “Head of the Year”. It starts on the 1st Tishrei (the first day of the Jewish year), and lasts for 2 days. On this day they celebrate the creation of Adam and Eve, the first people (man and woman). The relationship between God and humanity is emphasized in Rosh Hashanah.

Another thing that is celebrated in Judaism is Yom Kippur. This is celebrated on the 10th day of Tishri (between September 15th and October 13th). Yom Kippur means “Day of Atonement” (atonement means to do something to show that you are sorry for something you have done in the past). On this day Jewish people atone for their mistakes of the past year. This is one of the most important Jewish holidays.

On the 15th day of Tishri (5 days after Yom Kippur) is the Festival of Sukkot. Sukkot is a celebration which lasts 7 days. Sukkot is also known as Feast of Booths or Feast of Tabernacles. On the first day of Sukkot it is forbidden to work.

Atzeret is a Jewish celebration which is celebrated on the 8th day of Sukkot. The definition of atzeret isn't known to us although it might come from atzar, meaning stop. Atzeret seems very similar to Sukkot, but in Atzeret people no longer shake the lulav and etrog. Also, in Atzeret, there are no more blessings to make people holy. On Atzeret, after reading the Torah in the synagogue they recite memorial prayers.

Two days after Sukkot Jews celebrate Simchat Torah (22nd day of Tishri). Over the year, each week, some of the Torah is read. In Simchat Torah the reading of the year finishes. On this day people celebrate the end of reading the Torah and looking forward to the reading of the next year. To celebrate Simchat Torah people go to the synagogue which starts in the evenings. The members of the congregation hold the Torah scrolls that they then carry around for everyone to kiss as they march around. This ceremony is called hakafot.

For 8 days and nights, Jews celebrate Hanukkah (Chanukkah). It starts on the 25th of Kislev (near the end of November). Hanukkah means “dedication” in Hebrew. This holiday is in order to celebrate oil. Although Hanukkah is one of the most well known celebrations, it is one of the less important celebrations. To celebrate Hanukkah, one has to light the Hanukkiyah. The Hanukkiyah is an oil candle. Also, in this celebration there is the dreidel. This is a very popular game where one spins a dreidel. A dreidel is a spinner with symbols on all sides. People spin the dreidel and read the symbols. Since Hanukkah is celebrating oil, Jewish people eat lots of fried foods.

Purim is a festival celebrated by the Jews. It is celebrated with lots of things such as, drinking, performances, dressing up in order to recall the evil order of Haman. Haman is a person in the Torah that planned to kill all of the Jews. Purim happens between February 25 and March 25
For 7-8 days in March and/or April, Jews celebrate Passover. Passover is in the 15th day of Nissan (Jewish month). For this celebration, people sacrifice a lamb at the temple. For Passover people light candles. Jews also work, drive, write or switch on or off electronic devices. There is also a special diet that Jews take during Passover.

Shavuot is celebrated on the 50th day after Passover. Shavuot does not have many rituals, therefore people stay up late studying the Torah. Some of the few rituals is to eat only dairy foods and reading the book of Ruth.


Jewish people celebrate many different holidays which are all on specific dates in the Jewish calendar. The Jewish calendar is different from the ones used by other religions. Some times they have to add an extra month to the calendar so that it stays in sync with with the solar calendar. The twelve months in the Jewish calendar are:


  1. Nissan (March-April)
  2. Iyar (April-May)
  3. Sivan (May-June)
  4. Tammuz (June-July)
  5. Av (July-August)
  6. Elul (August-September)
  7. Tishri (September-October)
  8. Cheshvan (October-November)
  9. Kislev (November-December)
  10. Tevet (December-January)
  11. Shevat (January-February)
  12. Adar I, leap years only (February-March)
  13. Adar, called Adar Beit in leap years (February-March)

Here is list and description of some of the celebrations:

Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year. it is celebrated on the first and the second of Tishri. Jewish people believe that this is when God decides what will happen in the new year. The ten day period that starts with this holiday is called the Days of Awe, and people have these ten days to find the people they might have harmed in the previous year and apologize to them.

Yom Kippur is celebrated on the tenth of Tishri. The Jews believe that this is the day that God finishes making the decision of who will die, live, thrive and other things in the next year. On this day people confess things they have done to god in prayers and ask for forgiving.

Most likely the most commonly known celebration is Hanukkah, also known as Chanukah. It is celebrated over an eight day period that starts sometime in December. It is different almost every year. In 2012 it was celebrated from the eighth of December to the sixteenth of December. Jews celebrate this holiday because in 164 B.C., a group of Jewish people named Maccabees took their land back from the Syrian Greeks. When they finished the battle they only had enough oil to light the Menorah (a special candlestick with multiple branches) for only one day. Amazingly, they lasted for the following eight days. This is why Hanukkah is celebrated over a eight day period. The Jews light a new candle on each of these days on a nine branched menorah, also known as a chanukkiya. People exchange gifts and eat fried foods to remind them of the oil to celebrate.
The holy days in judaism are very important to the religion because this is how the jewish community units them together.Saturday and sunday are very holy to jews which they rest with their family and eat.rosh hashanah is the jewish new year is also a very important part in the jewish calendar which jews eat peas ,dates and leek . the jewish calendar is a very complicated calendar.
Nissan (March-April)
Iyar (April-May)
Sivan (May-June)
Tammuz (June-July)
Av (July-August)
Elul (August-September)
Tishri (September-October)
Cheshvan (October-November)
Kislev (November-December)
Tevet (December-January)
Shevat (January-February)
Adar I, leap years only (February-March)


How many gods does the religion have?

Judaism has one almighty god. Jews are monotheistic.
The people who practice Judaism believe in one God only. They believe that he created everything on this earth, even the earth itself! Judaism is a monotheistic religion.
The people that are jewish believe only in one god which they believe created life in earth and the universe.





Jews firmly believe in one God. They believe that God shares a personal and almost parental relationship with each and every Jew.
The Jewish believe in one god, that they believe created everything on Earth. They also believe that he has a special relationship with each Jew.

How do the followers contact or pray to their gods?


The Jews pray to keep in touch with god. Usually they pray three times a day, once in the morning, once in the afternoon and once in the evening. To pray is to build a connection to god and to obey his commandment, which is: “...to love the LORD your God, and to serve him with all your heart and with all your soul.” There are three different ways to pray, and the Jews use all of them. The three prayers are:

  • Prayers of thanksgiving
  • Prayers of praise
  • Prayers that are used to ask for things

They believe that god will always listen and respond to a prayer. They use them to ask for advice, to thank God for something, and even to apologize for previous events.



Judaism followers pray approximately 3 times a day. There are morning prayers,(Shacharit) afternoon prayers,(MIncha) and evening prayers(Ma’ariv/.Arvit). When Jewish people pray, they believe they are developing a stronger relationship with God. However, each Jew has their own, individual way to connect with their God. Prayers are commonly done in a Synagogue, the place of worship. They believe that God is constantly listening, watching, and will respond in his own way. Prayers are used for different things such as thanks of God or asking a favor upon God.


Jews pray to God. There isn't a specific place for praying. Many prayers are in the synagogue but one of the most important ones, the Birkat Ha-Mazon, is never recited in a synagogue. There isn't a certain amount of times that Jews pray. Some do it once a week but others do it up to three times a day. In Judaism there different types of prayers. According to Tracey R Rich, “The most important part of any Jewish prayer, whether it be a prayer of petition, of thanksgiving, of praise of God, or of confession, is the introspection it provides, the moment that we spend looking inside ourselves, seeing our role in the universe and our relationship to God.”
when jews want to pray they go to the synagogue where they pray there 3 times a day. morning prayers are called shacharit. midday prayers mlncha and night prayer arvit.when you pray your believe with god needs to be strong and sometimes they pray either for thanking god or asking him for something.

What are the rules? What do people have to do in their lifetime?

There are 10 main rules in the religion which are called the 10 commandments:
1) I am the Lord thy god, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
2) Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.
3) Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
4) Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.
5) Honor thy father and thy mother.
6) Thou shalt not murder.
7) Thou shalt not commit adultery.
8) Thou shalt not steal.
9) Thou shalt not bear false witness against they neighbor.
10) Thou shalt not covet anything that belongs to thy neighbor.
These are the rules that God expects Jewish people to follow and respect. If you obey these, then it is believed that your relationship with God will grow stronger.

There are a lot of rules in Judaism. The main rules of Judaism are:

  1. God exists
  2. God is one and unique
  3. God is incorporeal (this means that God has no physical form)
  4. God is eternal
  5. Prayers are for God only
  6. The prophet’s words are true
  7. Moses’ prophecies are true
  8. The Torah, Talmud, and others were given to Moses
  9. There will be no other Torah
  10. God can know the thoughts and actions of every human
  11. God will reward or punish people according to what they have done
  12. The Messiah will come
  13. The dead will return (resurrect)
-http://www.jewfaq.org/beliefs.htm

The ten main rules of the religion ar also known as the ten commandments:

  1. I am the Lord your God who brought you out of slavery in Egypt.
  2. You shall have no other gods but me.
  3. You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God.
  4. You shall remember and keep the Sabbath day holy.
  5. Honor your father and mother.
  6. You shall not murder.
  7. You shall not commit adultery.
  8. You shall not steal.
  9. You shall not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
  10. You shall not covet.

The ten main rules in judaism
1.believe in god
2.respect your parents
3.don't commit adultery
4.remember to keep sabbath a holy day
5.not allowed to steal
6.not allowed to murdered
7.not allowed to lie

Are there any sacred books? What are they called?

Judaism has a few books. The most sacred one is called the Torah. Technically the Torah isn't one book, it is the first five books of the Tanakh. It is also known as the First Five Books of Moses. The Tanakh is the sacred text of the Torah, Nebi'im, and the Ketuvim (law, prophet, and writing). The Tanakh is also known as the Jewish Bible. The Tanakh is actually 39 books. Five of those are the Torah, 21 of the books are the Nebi'im, and 13 books are the Ketuvim. The Talmud is also very important. It is the oral version of the Torah. Another holy Jewish book is the Midrash. The Midrash has legends, stories, and a lot more in it. It is a more accessible book than the Torah. The Responsa is a book with the answers to special questions in the Jewish law.

The Torah is considered the sacred book of Judaism. It is the 1st part of the Jewish bible. However, the Torah is a part of the book of Moses. It is the first five books of the Tanakh which is considered the Jewish bible and contains verses, legends, opinions, songs etc. The Torah includes the 613 commandments of Judaism. It is normally written on a scroll with two wooden cylinders as the top and bottom. The book of Moses or the Torah covers the time period from when the world is created to the death of Moses. Another important book is called the Talmud. The Talmud is just as important as the Torah. It is believed that it was given to Moses and remembered orally until it was written down somewhere between the 3rd and 5th century. Some call it the oral Torah because Moses memorized it orally.

There are two sacred texts, the Talmud and the Torah. The Torah, though, is considered the most sacred book in Judaism. It is the beginning of the Jewish bible, and is also known as the first five books of Moses. These are the first five parts of the Tanakh, which is the Jewish Bible. The Jewish believe that it contains information on how God wants the Jews to live. It is written in Hebrew, the oldest Jewish language. Another important Jewish text is the Talmud.
The holiest book in judaism is the torah and talmud.The torah is the jewish bible the five books of moses.the torah has facts about god and what he wants the jewish people to do.The talmud is another holy text.The torah is also very important because it tells how jewish people are supposed to live and what to do and how to celebrate holidays.

What do the holy buildings look like?

Synagogue-Anja
Synagogue-Anja

The holy buildings in Judaism are called Synagogues. They are big buildings which are built in honour of God. In a synagogue there is a big hall which is meant for prayers. In that hall there is an arc holding the holy book, the Torah.
The holy buildings are called Synagogues which are created once a town has at least 10 Jewish families. It is a place of worship during the day of the Sabbath. On the outside, synagogues look very traditional and have neutral colors such as white, gray, or beige. On the inside, there is a long room/hall where people gather for prayer and worship. There is also always an ark in the interior of the synagogue usually perched high around the Ten commandments so that it can be bowed down to.

The Jewish holy buildings are called Synagogues. They are basically the Jewish equivalent to a Church. They are usually large and are built for praying and honoring God. They have a big hall in them where people can come to pray. The oldest Synagogue in the United States is the Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island.


the jewish holy buildings are called synagogues.the synagogues is where jewish people worship god. synagogues are usually big and have big halls.jewish people go to the synagogues 3 times a day.















What happens to you when you die?

There isn't much about the Jewish afterlife in the Torah. They speak more about Olam Ha Ze, which is the current life. The Torah says that one should live the current life to its fullest. There isn't one specific answer to what happens after the current life. One of the theories is the Olam Ha Ba, which is a life after the one we are in. Olam Ha Ba is a perfect world after we die. After death, Jews believe that they are judged and that the people who have done the good their entire lifelong go to Olam Ha Ba. Another place is the Gehenna, which is the place that the people who did bad in their life go. It is the opposite of the Olam Ha Ba.
Jews believe that the soul stays with the body for a few days after death. Then, the soul goes on to the next world to be judged. The soul then returns to God.

For some reason that is unknown to us, the Torah does not say the beliefs about what happens after you die. Many believe that it is because the focus is more about “this world”. This suggests that you are supposed to “live in the moment” and not worry about what happens after you die because you will be judged by God and sent where he thinks you deserve so as long as you please God, there is not much more that you can do.

There aren’t many Jewish texts or Scriptures that say much about about what happens after death. Jewish focus more on their lives than death, and enjoy the time that they have alive. The Jewish books focus mainly on what is known as “this word” and not on death.

In the torah it doesn't tell really much about the after life.It says when you die you will be judjed by god and he will know where to send you eather to hell or to heaven . jews do believe there life after death that if you're jewish you will probably go to heaven but if you did many sins you will go to hell.

Are there any religious symbols and writing?

Star of David-Anja
Star of David-Anja

The Star of David is one of the most well known symbols of Judaism. Although it is very well known it is relatively new. Supposedly, the Star of David represents the shield of King David. Many people have tried to find the meaning of the star. Some of these meanings are that the top triangle points upward, towards God, and the bottom triangle points downward, toward the real world. In this case the star shows the link between Earth and God. Others think that the intertwining pattern makes the star inseparable, like the Jews.

external image Star_of_David.svg
There are many different symbols throughout Judaism. Some of the more commonly known ones include the menorah, the star of david, and the yarmulke . The menorah is a candlestick which holds 7-9 candles. It is used mainly during the time of Hannukah which was talked about above. The Menorah represents the miracle
<-------- (Maggie's) that the builders of the temple were able to have 9 days when they were estimated to only have 7. The menorah represents the miracle. The Star of David is actually fairly new in the religion. It was the emblem that was on the shield that King David used. It is also the symbol that is found on the flag of Israel which is has the highest population of Jews in the world! Judaism uses the language of Hebrew. Hebrew is the spoken language in Israel as well. It has an individual alphabet unlike any other languages.


The Star of David is one of the most commonly known Jewish symbols. Today it can be found in many places, including the flag of Israel, where Judaism is the most common religion. It is supposed to represent King David’s shield. Some people believe that the six points represent Gods rule in all six directions: North, south, east, west, up and down.

Another well known Jewish symbol s the menorah. The menorah is used to celebrate the Jewish celebration Hanukkah. It is a large candlestick that can hold between 7 and 9 candles. During the eight day period known as Hanukkah, Jews light an extra one of these candles for each day.


There are unique symbols in judaism such as the star of david that is shown in the flag of israel and the star of david represents Jews all over the world and is known in the world to be the start of david.The Menorah is also a Holy jewish symbol that has 8 candles. The eight candles represent how many days there are in huanka.



Is there any special clothing?

Often, after marriage, Orthodox Jewish women cover their hair to show that they are married. Jews are not allowed to wear wool and flax. The Torah says "You shall not wear combined fibers, wool and linen together." The mixture is called Shatnez. When people still of wore robes it wasn't allowed to wear the robe which belonged to a person of the opposite gender. A religious clothing item is the kippah. The kippah is something worn to cover the head.

Clothing is important to Jews. According to the Torah, Jewish people are not allowed to wear wool and linen together at the same time. A long time ago, robes would be made for the Jews. A woman had to wear a woman's robe a woman
Maggie's
Maggie's
and it is the same with men. One of the more famous types of clothing is the Yarmulke. The Yarmulke is worn on the crown of the head because it is considered a form of a crown. It is worn to respect God because he wears a crown upon his head. The majority of yarmulke wearers are ----> (Maggies)
men, however, sometimes women will wear it for a special occasion. Women are able to cover their head in other ways such as hats or scarves.

According to the Torah, Jewish people are not allowed to wear flax or wool. The exact statement from the book is, “You shall not wear combined fibers, wool and linen together.” This mixture is called “Shatnez.” Earlier, Jews would wear robes, and the robes for men were different than those made for women. Women are only allowed to wear women’s robes and the same goes for men. A more commonly known piece of Jewish clothing is the Yamaka. The Yamaka looks like a small hat and is worn on a persons head. It symbolizes that god God is above humans, and that is why they wear it on their head. The Yamaka is mostly worn by men but sometimes women wear them for special occasions.

jews mostly wear a Yamaka is mostly worn by men that symbolizes that god is above humans . Many jews are seen to be wearing the yamaka in the streets when they want to go to a funeral or to the synagogue or just daily. In the torah it says Jewish people are not allowed to wear wool and flax.Many jewish females are seen to wear black and a long dress.




Where is the religion most common?



The religion is most commonly practiced in Israel and the United States. This is most likely because the Jewish people consider Israel the “Holy Land”. In fact, they have been fighting for the holy land for years. It is said that 75.4% of Israeli citizens are Jewish. Israel is the only country in the world where the majority of citizens are Jewish. About 80% of Jews live in either the United States or Israel.

Popultation-Anja
Popultation-Anja


Judaism is most popular in Israel. By 2010 there were 5,703,700 people in Israel who practiced Judaism. The USA had 5,275,00 followers of Judaism in 2010. Today it still is Israel that has the most Jews. About 75% of the Israelis are Jewish.

Judaism is most common in Israel and in the United States. The majority of the Israeli population is Jewish, and it is the only country that has a population where most people are Jewish.
Judaism is comman in israel ecpecaily and the U.S.A. Isreal is the only offical jewish state where the majority are Jewish.


How many people believe in the religion

All over the world there are about 14,000,000 people who follow Judaism.
Worldwide, there are approximately 14,500,000 people who are followers of Judaism.
Accroding to the Un there are between 14 million to 14 500 000 Jewish people worldwide.

According to the The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute, there were around 13.1 million Jewish people in the world in 2007, most of them which are living in either Israel or the United States. Today, there are about 14,500,000 Jews in the world.



What do the Jews know about the “Chosen One of God”?
The Jews believe that the “Chosen One of God”, also known as the Messiah, will come when the world is in great trouble or when the world is a better place.



What is an average Sabbath for a Jewish family?

To start the Sabbath on Friday night, Jews will say blessings over candles, wine, food, and more. Then, it is tradition for the woman in the house to light specific candles called "mitzvah" to welcome in the holy day of rest. Then, there is the blessing of the children on the eve of the Sabbath. a traditional food that is baked for the Sabbath is challah. Many Jewish families make it together on the Sabbath as a bonding experience. Some Orthodox Jews do not ride in their car or even their bicycle as it is considered burning energy which could be considered as work.


How do Jews think the world was created?

Jews believe that God created the world over a seven day period. He added a new thing to it each day:

Day 1: He created Light

Day 2: He made the sky and called it Heaven

Day 3: He added things to the surface such as water and dry land

Day 4: He made the sun, moon, and the stars

Day 5: He added fish and other sea creatures to the oceans and seas, and added other creatures such as birds too.

Day 6: He created many other land animals to walk or crawl over the land’s surface. He created a creature out of earth and clay in which he put a divine soul. This was the first human. He gave this human the power to think and come up with conclusions. he also gave it the power to speak. Humans were made to be the superior of all other animals on Earth.

Day 7: God finished everything on this day and then took a break. This is why Jewish people believe that people should work six days a week and then take a rest on the seventh day. Every seventh day is called Shabbat, on which Jews recognize God as the creator of the Earth.



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Maggie's Bibliography

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